Skip navigation

Insufficient Citation of Paraphrase (or Summary)

Definition

Changing the words of an original source and using the author's ideas with attempts to acknowledge the material's source(s), but without correct or adequate citation, is considered insufficient citation of paraphrase.

Example Source Text

In classical music of the last 35 years, the term minimalism is sometimes applied to music which displays some or all of the following features: repetition (often of short musical phrases, with minimal variations over long periods of time) or stasis (often in the form of drones and long tones); emphasis on consonant harmony; a steady pulse. It is almost inseparable, currently, from electronic music and composition.

Apart from Philip Glass, Steve Reich is arguably the most famous minimalist composer, with John Coolidge Adams also being notable. Following the classical compositions of Philip Glass, the Chicago House scene in the late 1990s saw a major revolution with the advent of the ghettotech single "Time for the Perculator" by Cajmere, which was decidedly more minimalistic in its outlook.

"Minimalist Music." Wikipedia. 22 Aug. 2005. 31 Aug. 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimalist_music

Draft

According to an article on Wikipedia.org, musical minimalism has evolved since the 1970s to incorporate repetition, long notes, and a consistent beat into what people now commonly call electronic music. Since the late 1990s, it has revolutionized even electronic music by bringing about "ghettotech" in the music culture known as "Chicago House." Philip Glass, Steve Reich, and John Coolidge Adams are musical minimalism's minimalism's most well-known composers.

Explanation

The writer has adequately paraphrased the source material, but has based his or her draft almost completely on the ideas he or she discovered in the source. She or he has acknowledged that the ideas about musical minimalism were derived wholly from another author's ideas, but has failed to cite his or her source adequately.

To eliminate this type of plagiarism, you should provide a parenthetical or endnote of footnote citation for the paragraph(s) that include material derived from a source or incorporate the original source into the body of your draft to acknowledge that the ideas were originally another person's. You should check the most recent edition of your style guide for documentation guidelines.

Corrected draft

According to an article on Wikipedia.org, musical minimalism has evolved since the 1970s to incorporate repetition, long notes, and a consistent beat into what people now commonly call electronic music. Since the late 1990s, it has revolutionized even electronic music by bringing about "ghettotech" in the music culture known as "Chicago House" (Wikipedia "Minimalist Music"). Philip Glass, Steve Reich, and John Coolidge Adams are musical minimalism's most well-known composers.